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Halpenny, its editor, for their helpfulness and encouragement, which were important factors on the way leading to the publication of my work.
VIII My grateful acknowledgements are also due to the whole staff of the University of Toronto Library for the facilities extended to me in the use of its books.
WHO DIED A MARTYR OF HIS FAITH IN AUSCHWITZ IN 1944; ANDTOTHESACRED MEMORY OF MY WIFE AND OF MY ONLY CHILD JOSEPH (H AYYI M ISRAEL) WHO ALSO FELL VICTIMS TO NAZISM IN AUSCHWITZ IN 1944 Preface To know the origin of words is to know the cultural history of mankind.
In infinite humility I bend the knee and bow before the Eternal Who gives power to the faint, and to him who has no might increases strength.
In most cases etymologies given up by serious science long ago are still wandering out of one dictionary into another and continue living with tenacity, appa- rently ignoring the truths established in the field of philology in the course of the latter decades. Despite the fact that Tocharian (this language extinct long ago but newly discovered at the end of the Nineteenth Century) occupies a very important place among the Indo-European languages, Tocharian references appear only quite excep- tionally in the etymological dictionaries of the English language.
ERNEST KLEIN A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures of silver PROVERBS VOLUME I A-K ELSEVIER PUBLISHING COMPANY AMSTERDAM LONDON NEW YORK I966 ELSEVIER PUBLISHING COMPANY 335 JAN VAN GALENSTRAAT, P. BOX 211, AMSTERDAM AMERICAN ELSEVIER PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC. ESSEX First Published 1965 - First Reprinted 1969 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 65-13229 COPYRIGHT © 1966 ELSEVIER PUBLISHING COMPANY, AMSTERDAM ALL RIGHTS RESERVED THIS BOOK OR ANY PART THEREOF MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM, INCLUDING PHOTOSTATIC OR MICROFILM FORM, WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE PUBLISHERS PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS COVER AND BINDING SUSANNE HEYNEMANN lam what my MOTHER and my FATHER made of me THE AUTHOR DEDICATED TO THESACREDMEMORYOFTHEBEST PARENTS: MY DEAR MOTHER WHO AFTER A LIFE OF SELF-SACRIFICE DIED IN SZATMAR IN 1940 AND MY DEAR FATHER, THE WORLD-RENOWNED RABBI AND SCHOLAR RABBI IGNAZ (ISAAC) KLEIN OF SZATMAR.
This dictionary tries to be a dependable guide to the reader in this respect too, by giving him all the necessary information about the origin, for- mation and sense development of any word that might interest him.
The scientific value of most etymological dictionaries is much impaired by the circumstance that their authors are not familiar with the structure of the Semitic languages, a fact thrown into relief by the inconsistencies of the transliteration of Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic words, on the one hand, and by the lack of any etymological analysis of these words, on the other.
In many other cases the etymology is not given either, but the origin of the respec- X tive word is referred to by such vague terms as 'of uncertain etymology', or 'probably of Orien- tal origin', etc., whereas their provenance is very well known. Bense, Dictionary of the Low Dutch element in the English Vocabulary. Carnoy, Albert, Dictionnaire etymologique de la mythologie greco-romaine, Louvam.
My dictionary contains the ety- mology of several hundred such words. Berneker, E., Slavisches etymologisches Worterbuch, vol. Devic M Dictionnaire etymologique des mots francais derives de l'arabe, Pans, 1876; published also in Supplement to E. This dictionary gives also the etymologies of personal names and mythological names. = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. Littre's Dictionnaire de la langue francaise, Pans, 1884. Some other features of this dictionary: What the elements are to chemistry, what the sounds are to music, are words to language. Feist, S., Vergleichendes Worterbuch der gotischen Sprache, 3rd ed., Leiden, 1939- Frankel Siegmund, Die aramaischen Fremdworter im Arabischen, Leyden, 1886. Libros, Leiden, 195 • Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford, 195 1- Lewy H Die semitischen Fremdworter im Griechischen, Berlin, 1895. On this occasion I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to the Canada Council, whose grant made it possible for me to have the manuscript of my dictionary typed in order to pre- pare it for the press.