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The boundaries of Gandhara varied throughout history.
There are some legends in which the two rivers are said to be joined here by the underground Sarasvati River, forming a triveṇī, a confluence of three rivers.
Famed for its local tradition of Gandhara (Greco-Buddhist) Art, Gandhara attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Kushan Empire.
Gandhara "flourished at the crossroads of Asia," connecting trade routes and absorbing cultural influences from diverse civilizations; Buddhism thrived until 8th or 9th centuries, when Islam first began to gain sway in the region.
Gandhara was one of sixteen Mahajanapada of ancient India.
The primary cities of Gandhara were Puruṣapura (Peshawar), Takṣaśilā (Taxila), and Pushkalavati (Charsadda).
and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries.