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Julien — Jealousy among his officers causes mutiny — He puts it down and punishes the mutineers — Sends out explorers— Loss of the Santiago— A native visits his ships — Curious account of Patagonian giants— Attempts to capture them lead to difiiculty with the natives— The mutineers tried, sen- tenced, executed, or marooned — Death better than marooning — The fleet, after religious ceremonies, change their winter quarters— See an ima Riuary eclipse — Finally sail for the strait — Discover and enter it— The question of hi! Yet, to make another use of our simile, these streams must be followed with patient steps and constant scrutiny to their fountain-heads that their beginnings may be tested and their purity ascertained.pre- vious knowledge of it again discussed — One ship has already been wrecked — Another now deserts him — Adventures attending the passage of the Strait of Magellan — Discovery of native buildings and graves — Final passage and extri- cation from the strait— The experiences of Columbus — Balboa and Magellan compared — Strain's Darien expedition quoted in proof of great difficulties to be overcome— Small cost of these early expeditions, and singular details of their outfit — False economy ofttimes fatal to success 57 CHAPTER V. We must avoid those blind trails of error which, like the worn-out buffalo spoors of the great prairies, lead not to water, but dry wallows— roads that end in bewilder- ment, or, like the fabled voyages of Juan de Fuca, exist (mly in the imagination of their mendacious reporter.REVIVAL OF SPANISH INTEREST IN NORTHWEST DISCOVERY. Secondly, we have journals and personal experiences whose value depends largely on the truthfulness and trustworthiness of their authors and narrators, and even then are handicapped with the danger of irnconscious exaggeration to which we have fnst referred.Spain plans new expeditions of discovery on the Northwest coast— Escapes a war with England by mediation of France— Cruise of the Santiago— Attacked by scurvy— Coasts the shore— Lands and trades with natives— Driven seaward by gales— Enters Nootka Sound— Observes Mount Olympus— Returns to Mon- terey—Important results obtained, but not being published, are useless— An- other expedition undertaken— Attacked by Indians, and boat's crew killed— Ships separated by a gale— One returns to Monterey— Still another expedition sent out, but returns without material result— War betwei'n Great Britain and Spain puts a stop to Spanish explorations on this coast 95 CIIAPTKll VIII. Cook's visit to our shores— Significance of his instructions— Reaches the North- west coast— Explorations hindered by fogs— Storm prevents the sight of the Strait of Fuca— Not finding it, Cook denies its existence— Anglo-Saxon rt-rxus Spanish geographical names- Appropriateness of native appellations — Mid- shipman Vancouver— Bold adventure of . Third and last, (here remains the field of fairly accredited histories, ancient and modern, sustained by collateral evidence and undisputed facts.
DUTCH AND RUSRI.\N VOYAGES OF EXPLOHATIGN TO THE NORTHWEST COAST. that lias finally hardened into seeming reality the grossest fic- tions.
Discovery of Cape Horn— Bchring's first voyage of exploration to the northeast — Its failure— The . II 277 Day, Jesse N 115 Donney, John C 241 De Pledge, H. C 187 Drum, Henry 61 Durham, Xelson W 199 Ellis, Myron 11 355 Eshelraan, J. How many mariners risked life and fortune, braving the terrors of the nnknown frozen seas to find and explore the mythical Straits of Anian, because the original falsehood was repeated till its very reiteration impressed credulity with its truth.
Javanese junk— Behring's second voyage— Mysterious dis- appearance of his consort's boats and their crews— Their descendants discov- ered—Sufferings and death of Behring— Loss of liis ship — Survivors of his crew build a smaller vessel and return— Skins brought back by his sailors tind ready sale in Siberia and lead to establishment of Russian fur trade on the Northwest coast °" CHAPTER VII. This world is full of men who can repeat a baseless state- ment till they really believe it themselves ; and such people, being possessed of vivid imaginations, are ofttimes dangerously circumstantial in their reports.
Having thus, as it were, led our reader from " dawn to daylight" upon the coast, we shall endeavor to trace the prog- ress of interior occupancy, when the first faint plash of waves was heard, " Erelong to roll :i liiiinaii sea," of those who flocked in by land from the eastward to settle upon the fertile fields of Washington. In the tieatment of our subject from a historical standpoint, we juopose to rely mainly upon the delineation of its earlier life and history, the exposition of the slower processes of that social and political evolution, that misty, doubtful dawn, often over- cast with threatening clouds, which has finally ended happily and ushered in so perfect and promising a day.
«« L HISTORY OF WASHINGTON THE EVERGREEN STATE FROM EARLY DAWN TO DAYLIGHT WITH TOli TTi Al TS ^jy O 'BIOGTi^PHIES JULIAN HAWTHORNE EDITOR ASSISTEO BY COL. To this will naturally follow, as briefly as may be, some notice of later voyages and attempts, more or less successful, to exam- ine and settle onr own western bf)undarj% not only the explora- tions of Spain, but of those who emulated her — the Russian, the Dutch, the English, and American navigators whose united efforts mapped out our geography of to-day. B 31T White, Harry 325 Wilbur, Lot 431 Wilkinson, J. C 277 Spokane Falls 193 Snoqualmie Falls 229 Post Falls, Upper Channel 367 Post Falls, Lower Channel 409 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON. So, while all eyes are not unnaturally turned to the con- templation of this, almost the youngest born of our beautiful sisterhood of States, we can but wonder at the culmination, progress, and possible future of this new star, now rising so rapidly uion our national horizon, which we are proud to wel- come into the federal galaxy under the name most beloved and revered throughout our land— the immortal name of Washington.The Nootka Sound imbroglio— English mercantile rascality threatens war be- tween England and Spain— Honest acknowledgment— Visit of La Perou.se— Berkley's voyage— Captain Meares enters, names, and surveys the Strait of Vlii TABLE OF CONTENTS. ASS.\ULTS OF CIVILIZATION OX THE EASTERN WILDS OF WASHISGTOX BY EXPLORA- TION AND EMIGRATION OVER LAND. Lovejoy — Whitman's transcontinental ride— Suffer- ings by the way — Lovejoy gives out, but Whitnum on — Arrival at St. — A race against time to Washington City — Ar- rives just in time— i^ppeals to Congress and the Cabinet — The nation aroused — "On to Oregon ! Aslor forms the Pacific Pur Company — His far-reaching and liberal plans — Generous offer to the British Northwest Fur Company — Duplicity of that cor- poration — They despatch an emissary to forestall him — Astor makes a grave mistake in selecting his partners— Articles of organization — British doubts settled by the British minister — Despatch of the Tonquin under convoj' — The overland parties — Arrival at Astoria — Capture of the Tonquin and ma.'sacre of her crew — Lewis blows up the — The massacre avenged — Torture of sur- vivors—Thompson too late— Erection of trading posts — Difficulty of obtaining employes — Enmity of the British — The ship Beaver despatched — Building of fort at Astoria — Description of the place — Many discouragements — The situa- tion — War declared between England and America — Taken advantage of by the Northwest Company — Mr. They are, nevertheless, to a certain extent valuable as the barometers. 21 ninie or less faithful, of ]iroo:i'ess, showina; to the weatherwise in sorial science the probabilities of the future as they rise or fall to their scale of degrees, and compare the present with the recorded past.Juan de Fuca — Duffin, liis first of Bcer, makes furtlier discoveries — Yankee enterprise sends Boston ships to the Sound — Explorations of tlie Cohimhia and Washington — Significance of names suggest patriotic thoughts — Captain Gray the first circumnavigator under tlie American flag — Discovers the mouth of the Columbia — Quimper's explorations — Vancouver arrives on the coast — Makes careful surveys — Hears of Gray's discovery, but disbelieves it — Gray returns, verifies, and names it after his ship— Scientific versus practical meth- ods — Vancouver makes a second visit — Admits the existence but belittles the value of Gray's discovery — Lieutenant Broughton sails up the Columbia, ignores Gray's visit, and impudently takes possession for the British crown— A Rhode Island vessel "leads him onl," " eitus Romaniis sum" — A tribute to Van- couver — Conflicting claims of three different and differing nationalities to territory on the Northwest coast 108 CHAPTER X. Opening remark.s — A pleasant change — From sea to shore — False reports stimu- late inland exploration — La Page's chronicles — A second Balboa — The Shining- Mountains — Vereudrye's expedition — Alexander Mackenzie, the Columbus of transcontinental travel — His able and far-reaching plans for British aggran- dizement of the Xorthwest — Thomas Jefferson the father of western exploration — Ledyard's fruitless effort — Balked by Russia — Michaux's frustrated by France — President Jefferson's confidential message to Congress— Lewis and Clarke's expedition— Charms of a wilderness life — Travels and explorations bet- ter than light reading — Great distances traversed by Lewis and Clarke — Route taken — Wonderful success— Excitement caused by it— Suicide of Lewis— Jef- ferson's tribute to the dead explorer — Soldiers and trappers turned back by Indians — Wier's prophecy — The Oak Point settlement — Captain Bonneville's TABLE OF CONTENTS. " — Two hundred wagons in line — British fur traders dis- courage Whitman's followers, but in vain — The emigrant army enters Orego Ti — A tribute to Whitman ICi CHAPTER XIII. By the trappers' fire— The Indians hear of " the Book" — A council of the tribe — They determine to obtain the Book — Send out messengers — They cross the mountains— Arrive in St. Astor betrayed and sold out by his partner, Mac Dougal — Sad ending of a noble enterprise — The British capture Astoria — Dramatic incidents 215 CHAPTER XVI. But as weather prophets, for good or evil, are seldom popular with the world at large, so the i)ages of a history weighed down by calculations which are ofttime S approved to- day and condemned to-morrow are apt to deaden the interest ot the naiialive for the geneial reader.Her aboriginal inhabitants, their origin, customs, and fruit- less attempts to drive out the whites and repossess their hunt- ing-grounds, will supply the material for a separate chapter. THE OI'ENINO OI' TIIIC FIlt ST DOOIt— COIMMlil S AM) irl S OKEAT DLSCDVKKY. 19 venture, the war with piivation, the peiils of the wiklerness and the rigors of climate, the encounters with savage f(jo.s, or, possi- bly, still more dangerous machinations of civilized enemies, in all of whicli tlie hardy pioneers of Washington signalized them- selves, thereby beconiing the factors and founders of her-posi- tion to-day.