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1 The Cumuli Project Cumuli — “Computational Understanding of MULtiple Images” — is an Es- prit Long term Research project focusing on multi-image geometry and its applications to 3D industrial metrology. car crash testing; and Imetric based in Courgenay (Switzerland) are world leaders in high precision industrial photogrammetry from still images. Viva provided deep insights into the geometry of 3D perception with un- calibrated cameras. This curve is called the horopter for the two centres of projection.

It can be seen as a follow-up to the suc- cessful Esprit-BRA project Viva, which involved three of Cumuli’s academic partners: Lund University (C. The final partner, Fraunhofer IGD in Darmstadt and Munich, specializes in visual modelling for augmented and virtual reality. Wang from the Leibniz Reinhard Koch, Luc Van Gool (Eds.): SMILE ’98, LNCS 1506, pp. Cumuli builds on this, considering on the one hand auto- calibration, Euclidean structure and extensions to more general types of image features, and on the other the special problems introduced by image sequences. ) required to build large 3D models from image data. 1 Multi- camera Geometry, Discrete Images The first part of Cumuli concentrates on the geometry of discrete sets of im- ages of static scenes. Note in both these examples how the use of duality has taken intuitively obvi- ous statements concerning projections of collinear points and derived a result somewhat less obvious about points lying on a twisted cubic.

They demonstrate the feasibility of generating highly realistic 3D models from natural, uncalibrated video sequences, of using 3D models for telecommunications, and of integrating real and virtual objects into a single environment.

This volume is divided into five thematic sections and an appendix.

The last few years have seen important steps toward genuine flexibility.

A case in point is the use of multiple images to generate 3D models, without an explicit knowledge of the relative position of the cameras or the camera settings.

Interaction with the modeled scene and mixing of virtual and real objects leads to Vir- tual/Augmented Reality applications in Vanguard and Cumuli, while the Panorama approach is tuned to fully automatic scene analysis for vi- sual communication and 3D-telepresence. and the vertices of the reference tetrahedron are projected in the same way relative to the two projection centres.

Section 4 deals with the use of constraints to improve 3D modeling.1506) ISBN 3-540-65310-4 CR Subject Classification (1998): 1.4, 1.2.10, 1.5.4 ISSN 0302-9743 ISBN 3-540-65310-4 Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright.All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other way, and storage in data banks.It explains the geometry behind the image relationships and develops the underlying mathematical con- cepts. September 1998 Reinhard Koch and Luc Van Gool Workshop Committee Lutz Falkenhagen Olivier Faugeras Nick Holliman Reinhard Koch Roger Mohr Georgio Sakas Amnon Shashua Gunnar Sparr Bill Triggs Andrew Zisserman Luc Van Gool University of Hannover Inria Sophia Antipolis Sharp Laboratories of Europe University of Leuven (Ghair) INPG Grenoble IGD Darmstadt Hebrew University of Jerusalem Lund University INRIA Grenoble University of Oxford University of Leuven (Ghair) Table of Contents Invited Presentations Cumuli, Panorama, and Vanguard Project Overview 1 Half Buschmann, Lutz Falkenhagen, Reinhard Koch, Roger Mohr, and Luc Van Goal Dualizing Scene Reconstruction Algorithms 14 Richard Hartley and Gilles Debunne Multiview Relations and Correspondence Search Geometry of Multiple Affine Views 32 Long Quan, Yuichi Ohta, and Roger Mohr Tensor Embedding of the Fundamental Matrix 47 Shai Avidan and Amnon Shashua Optimal Estimation of Matching Constraints 63 Bill Triggs Matching and Reconstruction from Widely Separated Views 78 Philip Pritchett and Andrew Zisserman Improving Block-Based Disparity Estimation by Considering the Non- uniform Distribution of the Estimation Error 93 Lutz Falkenhagen and Thomas Wedi 3D Structure from Multiple Images Beyond the Epipolar Constraint: Integrating 3D Motion and Structure Estimation 109 Tomas Brodsky, Gornelia Fermiiller, and Yiannis Aloimonos Multi-camera Acquisitions for High-Accuracy 3D Reconstruction 124 Federico Pedersini, Augusto Sarti, and Stefano Tubaro Metric 3D Surface Reconstruction from Uncalibrated Image Sequences .... All projects attempt to reconstruct the geometry and visual ap- pearance of complex 3D scenes that may be static or dynamic.

139 Marc Pollefeys, Reinhard Koch, Maarten Vergauwen, and Luc Van God Automatic 3D Model Construction for Turn-Table Sequences 155 Andrew W. Torr Euclidean and Affine Structure/Motion for Uncalibrated Cameras from Affine Shape and Subsidiary Information 187 Gunnar Sparr From Ordinal to Euclidean Reconstruction with Partial Scene Calibration . Anandan, and Michal Irani Imposing Euclidean Constraints during Self-calibration Processes 224 Didier Bondyfalat and Sylvain Bougnoux Interactive 3D Modeling from Multiple Images Using Scene Regularities . 236 Heung-Yeung Shum, Richard Szeliski, Simon Baker, Mei Han, and P. While Cumuli and Vanguard deal with images from uncalibrated cam- eras and unrestricted camera position for general scenes. lying on the line passing through X and X', the points X and X' are projected to the same ray.

SMILE was a joint effort of the European ACTS projects VANGUARD and PANORAMA and the Esprit project CUMULI, all of which are involved in the analysis and reconstruction of 3D scenes from image sequences.